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Historian Diarmaid MacCulloch , in his book The Reformation, A History noted that through all the slaughter of the Reformation era emerged the valuable concept of religious toleration and an improved Catholic Church [] which responded to doctrinal challenges and abuses highlighted by the Reformation at the Council of Trent — The council became the driving-force of the Counter-Reformation , and reaffirmed central Catholic doctrines such as transubstantiation , and the requirement for love and hope as well as faith to attain salvation.

The decades after the council saw an intellectual dispute between the Lutheran Martin Chemnitz and the Catholic Diogo de Payva de Andrada over whether certain statements matched the teachings of the Church Fathers and Scripture or not. The criticisms of the Reformation were among factors that sparked new religious orders including the Theatines , Barnabites and Jesuits , some of which became the great missionary orders of later years.

Baroque religious expression was stirring and emotional, created to stimulate religious fervor. Elsewhere, Jesuit missionary Francis Xavier introduced the Catholic Church in Japan , and by the end of the 16th century tens of thousands of Japanese adhered. Church growth came to a halt in under the Shogun Toyotomi Hideyoshi who, in an effort to isolate the country from foreign influences, launched a severe persecution of Christians.

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  • Despite this, a minority Christian population survived into the 19th century when Japan opened more to outside influence, and they continue to the present day. The Council of Trent generated a revival of religious life and Marian devotions in the Catholic Church. During the Reformation , the Church had defended its Marian beliefs against Protestant views. At the same time, the Catholic world was engaged in ongoing Ottoman Wars in Europe against Turkey which were fought and won under the auspices of the Virgin Mary. The victory at the Battle of Lepanto was accredited to her "and signified the beginning of a strong resurgence of Marian devotions, focusing especially on Mary, the Queen of Heaven and Earth and her powerful role as mediatrix of many graces".

    Pope Paul V and Gregory XV ruled in and to be inadmissible to state, that the virgin was conceived non-immaculate. Supporting the belief that she was born without original sin, through the intended protection of God's grace aka Immaculate Conception. The feast of the Rosary was introduced in , the feast of the Seven Sorrows in Marian fraternities , today mostly defunct, had millions of members. The Enlightenment constituted a new challenge of the Church. Unlike the Protestant Reformation , which questioned certain Christian doctrines, the enlightenment questioned Christianity as a whole.

    Generally, it elevated human reason above divine revelation and down-graded religious authorities such as the papacy based on it.

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    Toward the latter part of the 17th century, Pope Innocent XI viewed the increasing Turkish attacks against Europe, which were supported by France, as the major threat for the Church. He built a Polish-Austrian coalition for the Turkish defeat at Vienna in By eliminating certain honorary posts and introducing new fiscal policies, Innocent XI was able to regain control of the church's finances. This weakened the Church's ability to respond to gallicanist thinkers such as Denis Diderot , who challenged fundamental doctrines of the Church.

    France forced Catholic theologians to support conciliarism and deny Papal infallibility. The king threatened Pope Innocent XI with a general council and a military take-over of the Papal state. In Belgium and Germany, Gallicanism appeared in the form of Febronianism , which rejected papal prerogatives in an equal fashion. In what is now the Western United States, the Catholic Church expanded its missionary activity but, until the 19th century, had to work in conjunction with the Spanish crown and military.

    Coastal and overland routes were established from Mexico City and mission outposts in Texas and New Mexico that resulted 13 major California missions by European visitors brought new diseases that killed off a third of the native population. Only in the 19th century, after the breakdown of most Spanish and Portuguese colonies, was the Vatican able to take charge of Catholic missionary activities through its Propaganda Fide organization.

    During this period the Church faced colonial abuses from the Portuguese and Spanish governments. In South America, the Jesuits protected native peoples from enslavement by establishing semi-independent settlements called reductions. Pope Gregory XVI , challenging Spanish and Portuguese sovereignty, appointed his own candidates as bishops in the colonies, condemned slavery and the slave trade in papal bull In supremo apostolatus , and approved the ordination of native clergy in spite of government racism.

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    Christianity in India has a tradition of Thomas establishing the faith in Kerala. They are called St. Thomas Christians. The community was very small until the Jesuit Francis Xavier — began missionary work. He pioneered inculturation , adopting many Brahmin customs which were not, in his opinion, contrary to Christianity. He lived like a Brahmin, learned Sanskrit , and presented Christianity as a part of Indian beliefs, not identical with the Portuguese culture of the colonialists.

    He permitted the use of all customs, which in his view did not directly contradict Christian teachings. By there were 40 Christians in Madurai alone. In , Pope Gregory XV gave permission for this approach. But strong anti-Jesuit sentiments in Portugal, France, and even in Rome, resulted in a reversal. This ended the successful Catholic missions in India.

    The anti-clericalism of the French Revolution saw the wholesale nationalisation of church property and attempts to establish a state-run church. Large numbers of priests refused to take an oath of compliance to the National Assembly , leading to the Church being outlawed and replaced by a new religion of the worship of "Reason" but it never gained popularity. The year-old pope was taken as a prisoner to France in February and soon died. To win popular support for his rule, Napoleon re-established the Catholic Church in France through the Concordat of The church lands were never returned, however the priests and other religious were given salaries by the government, which maintained church properties through tax revenues.

    Catholics were allowed to continue some of their schools.

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    The end of the Napoleonic wars, signaled by the Congress of Vienna , brought Catholic revival and the return of the Papal States to the pope; the Jesuits were restored. France remained basically Catholic. The census of counted 36 million people, of whom The return of the Bourbons in brought back many rich nobles and landowners who supported the Church, seeing it as a bastion of conservatism and monarchism. However the monasteries with their vast land holdings and political power were gone; much of the land had been sold to urban entrepreneurs who lacked historic connections to the land and the peasants.

    Few new priests were trained in the — period, and many left the church. The result was that the number of parish clergy plunged from 60, in to 25, in , many of them elderly. Entire regions, especially around Paris, were left with few priests. On the other hand, some traditional regions held fast to the faith, led by local nobles and historic families.

    With systematic missionary work and a new emphasis on liturgy and devotions to the Virgin Mary, plus support from Napoleon III, there was a comeback. In there were 56, priests, representing a much younger and more dynamic force in the villages and towns, with a thick network of schools, charities and lay organizations.

    Throughout the lifetime of the Third Republic there were battles over the status of the Catholic Church. The French clergy and bishops were closely associated with the Monarchists and many of its hierarchy were from noble families. Republicans were based in the anticlerical middle class who saw the Church's alliance with the monarchists as a political threat to republicanism, and a threat to the modern spirit of progress.

    The Republicans detested the church for its political and class affiliations; for them, the church represented outmoded traditions, superstition and monarchism. The Republicans were strengthened by Protestant and Jewish support. Numerous laws were passed to weaken the Catholic Church. In , priests were excluded from the administrative committees of hospitals and of boards of charity; in , new measures were directed against the religious congregations; from to came the substitution of lay women for nuns in many hospitals.

    Napoleon's Concordat continued in operation but in , the government cut off salaries to priests it disliked. The school laws of Republican Jules Ferry set up a national system of public schools that taught strict puritanical morality but no religion. Civil marriage became compulsory, divorce was introduced and chaplains were removed from the army. In he told French bishops not to act in a hostile manner to the State. In he issued an encyclical advising French Catholics to rally to the Republic and defend the Church by participating in Republican politics.

    This attempt at improving the relationship failed. Deep-rooted suspicions remained on both sides and were inflamed by the Dreyfus Affair.

    Catholics were for the most part anti-dreyfusard. The Assumptionists published anti-Semitic and anti-republican articles in their journal La Croix. This infuriated Republican politicians, who were eager to take revenge. Often they worked in alliance with Masonic lodges.

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    • The Waldeck-Rousseau Ministry — and the Combes Ministry —05 fought with the Vatican over the appointment of bishops. Chaplains were removed from naval and military hospitals —04 , and soldiers were ordered not to frequent Catholic clubs Combes as Prime Minister in , was determined to thoroughly defeat Catholicism. He closed down all parochial schools in France. Then he had parliament reject authorisation of all religious orders. This meant that all fifty four orders were dissolved and about 20, members immediately left France, many for Spain. All Church property was confiscated.

      History of the Catholic Church - Wikipedia

      Public worship was given over to associations of Catholic laymen who controlled access to churches. In practise, Masses and rituals continued. The Church was badly hurt and lost half its priests. In the long run, however, it gained autonomy—for the State no longer had a voice in choosing bishops and Gallicanism was dead. At the end of the 19th century, Catholic missionaries followed colonial governments into Africa and built schools, hospitals, monasteries and churches.

      Before the council, in Pope Pius IX with the support of the overwhelming majority of Catholic Bishops, whom he had consulted between and , proclaimed the dogma of the Immaculate Conception. In , the First Vatican Council affirmed the doctrine of papal infallibility when exercised in specifically defined pronouncements. The Industrial Revolution brought many concerns about the deteriorating working and living conditions of urban workers.