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Two great freedom struggles
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Africa’s freedom struggles and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Advance article alerts. Article activity alert. A considerable section of the people within the Congress was not satisfied with the policies of the Congress which was dominated primarily by the moderates.
They criticized their techniques of prayer and petition as political mendicancy. They were convinced that no tangible goal would be realized by the moderates. The nineteenth century movement of renaissance and reformation helped in reviving the faith of Indians in their culture. These organisations revived the glory of Indian Culture and generated a sense of self-confidence in the mind of Indians.
Forgetting the inferiority complex, the Indian mass came forward to face the challenge of the western culture and British administration. The racial arrogance and disrespectful behaviour of the Britishers towards the Indians, greatly injured their sentiments.
Aggrieved Indians often failed to get justice against their oppression. Even the Anglo-Indian newspapers supported the stand of the Englishmen. Such arrogance and rough behaviour of Britishers, partially helped the rise of extremism. Under the British rule, the economic interest of all sections of Indians was hampered.
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The cultivators suffered due to the revenue policy of the government. The British Government served the interests of the British traders more than the Indian traders.
History of Freedom Struggle in India
The educated Indians failed to get employment as per their qualifications. Industries could not grow in India due to the exploitative policy of the government. All sections of Indians gradually lost their faith in the British sense of justice. Moreover, India suffered from a severe famine in And then, the plague broke out in Bombay Presidency. The steps taken by the government to provide relief was inadequate and could not satisfy the people.
Out of the economic discontent, militant nationalism emerged in India. Certain international events of that time had great bearing on the growth of extremism. The defeat of Italy by Abyssinia in , defeat of Russia by Japan in , the course of national movements in Egypt, Persia and Turkey, demand of Ireland for self-government etc. All these international factors and forces encouraged extremism in India. The policies of different British Viceroys, particularly of Lord Curzon created widespread discontent among the Indians. He tried to attack the university autonomy with his Indian Universities Act.
He also destroyed the system of local self government by passing the Calcutta Corporation Act and attempted to divide Hindu and Muslim by the partition of Bengal. Though the government tried to justify its decision of partition on the ground of administrative convenience, yet the real aim was how to weaken the growing Indian nationalism. At that time Bengal had become the central point of Indian nationalism. So the partition seriously provoked the sentiments of the people and protest movements were organised throughout India.
This movement ultimately resulted in the Swadeshi Movement, boycott of foreign goods and in the scheme of national education which awakened the political consciousness of the people at large. The extremist phase of the liberation movement was provided with the philosophy of Aurobindo Ghosh and guidance of the trio-Lai, Bal and Pal, viz. All these Congressmen though differed from the political ideology of the moderates, yet instead of leaving the Congress they preferred to capture it from within.
All these leaders added religious dedication to the struggle for political independence. They did not have faith in passing resolutions, sending delegates or submitting petitions.
They never preached violence against the government, rather suggested to withdraw the co-operation of the people from the government. The techniques which were evolved by the Indians during the anti-partition of Bengal agitation, continued as the primary techniques of the extremists.
The differences between the moderates and extremists finally resulted in the split of the Congress at Surat in The extremists made a solid contribution to the national movement. People were made prepared to make sacrifices for the sake of their motherland. Their programme of national education aimed at the cultural regeneration in India. All these proved beneficial in the long run. Even Gandhiji adopted the techniques of the extremists later on.
While previously, Indian nationalism was confined to the limited educated class, the extremists had brought it nearer to the middle and lower middle class. Some good results also came out of extremism. The partition of Bengal was annulled in The extremists had generated a sense of self-sacrifice in the mind of Indians. They had compelled the British Government to provide certain constitutional privileges to Indians from time to time.
Their suggestions were adopted by the British Government which resulted in the passing of the Indian Council Act of But the constitutional reforms suggested in the Act failed to satisfy my body. However, the moderates opted to co-operate with the execution of the Act. Several scholars expressed the view that the extremists involved religion in politics and advocated the militancy of Hinduism.
It caused communalism in Indian politics later on. With a revival of Hinduism they also distanced the Muslim masses from the national movement and caused the formation of the Muslim League in But the leaders of the extremist phase were not communalists. They only adopted certain religious means with the prime motive of involving the common people in the liberation movement. Subsequently, the extremists became leaderless as Tilak was imprisoned for Six years in , B. Pal retired from active politics and Aurobindo went away to Pondicherry. Lala Lajpat Rai also went on a sojourn to U.